Contents Summary 35 I. Introduction 35 II. Nitrogen acquisition and assimilation 36 III. Root-to-shoot transport of nitrogen 38 IV. Nitrogen storage pools in vegetative tissues 39 V. Nitrogen transport from source leaf to sink 40 VI. Nitrogen import into sinks 42 VII. Relationship between sourceand sink nitrogen transport processes and metabolism 43 VIII. Regulation of nitrogen transport 43 IX. Strategies for crop improvement 44 X. Conclusions 46 Acknowledgements 47 References 47 SUMMARY: Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. World-wide, large quantities of nitrogenous fertilizer are applied to ensure maximum crop productivity. However, nitrogen fertilizer application is expensive and negatively affects the environment, and subsequently human health. A strategy to address this problem is the development of crops that are efficient in acquiring and using nitrogen and that can achieve high seed yields with reduced nitrogen input. This review integrates the current knowledge regarding inorganic and organic nitrogen management at the whole-plant level, spanning from nitrogen uptake to remobilization and utilization insource and sink organs. Plant partitioning and transient storage of inorganic and organic nitrogen forms are evaluated, as is how they affectnitrogen availability, metabolism and mobilization. Essential functions of nitrogen transporters in source and sink organs and their importance in regulating nitrogen movement in support of metabolism, and vegetative and reproductive growth are assessed. Finally, we discuss recent advances in plant engineering, demonstrating that nitrogen transporters are effective targets to improve crop productivity and nitrogen use efficiency. While inorganic and organic nitrogen transporters were examined separately in these studies, they provide valuable clues about how to successfully combine approaches for future crop engineering.